On the occasion of its commemorative anniversary programme '100 Years of Bauhaus' themed ‘Thinking the World Anew’, the Bauhaus Alliance 2019, in collaboration with regional, national and international partners, invites you to rediscover historical evidence of the Bauhaus and its significance, both present and future. The Grand Tour of Modernism, a project extending across Germany, includes 100 buildings, housing developments, icons and controversial objects, major structures and discoveries that are related to the Bauhaus idiom.
Follow the trail of Bauhaus in Rhineland-Palatinate: your journey will take you to the Kreutzenberger Winery in Kindenheim in the Palatinate, Westendsiedlung (a housing development) in Ludwigshafen and the Lutheran church in Mainz. To commemorate the anniversary, the Gutenberg Museum in Mainz is hosting a special exhibition on typography.
Discover the Bauhaus style in Rhineland-Palatinate at numerous events commemorating its anniversary. Large thematic exhibitions such as those at the Gutenberg-Museum in Mainz and Landesmuseum Mainz (Mainz State Museum), lectures and guided tours will familiarise you with the Bauhaus idiom and its influence in today’s world.
Winegrower Emil Kreutzenberger was sympathetic to modernism and the New Objectivity. He appointed the architect Otto Prott to design the family’s country estate in Kindenheim in 1929. Although Prott had not studied or taught at the Bauhaus himself, he was open to its avant-garde ideas.
Emil Kreutzenberger’s austere, low-rise building was a rather unusual first for the Palatinate. To this day, the family winery has remained true to this course, and has even dedicated an entire series of labels - depicting a perspective drawing by Prott - to the architect.
A new building was added to the Kreutzenberger Winery in 2004. The architect, Professor Heribert Hamann, successfully adopted the classical modernism design idiom to create the 'Glass Winery', where visitors can experience wine production from grape to bottle. A basement walkthrough connects all parts of the building complex.
The two-storey building with viewing gallery, which houses the wine press, is particularly impressive. The roof terrace affords fantastic views of the Upper Rhine Plain. Wine lovers can enjoy Kreutzenberger quality wines from the best vineyards in Kindenheim, Bockenheim and Wachenheim at wine tastings and seminars held at the newly renovated wine boutique.
The winery won the first edition of the German ‘Architekturpreis Wein’, an award for architecture related to wine production, in 2007: a total of 48 such projects from all Germany’s wine-growing regions were judged. It was the only winery in the Palatinate to receive the 'Höhepunkt der modernen Weinkultur in Deutschland' (the pinnacle of modern German wine culture) award from the German Wine Institute in 2013.
The architectural principles and idioms of the Bauhaus inspired the design of the Westendsiedlung, a housing development in Ludwigshafen. It was built near the former Messplatz at the western end of the city centre in 1929 and 1930, and financed by the Gemeinnützige Aktiengesellschaft für Wohnungsbau (GAG), a non-profit housing association established in 1920.
Architect Markus Sternlieb, GAG’s technical director at the time, was committed to sociopolitical principles. Apart from that of Westendsiedlung, he supervised the development of Friedrich-Ebert-Siedlung (formerly Hindenburgsiedlung) from 1927 to 1930 and Christian-Weiß-Siedlung in the southern part of the city in 1931.
Sternlieb set out to create affordable and good housing. Due to the often-dismal living conditions of low-income working-class families, the issue of affordable housing was a central element of the Weimar Republic’s social policy.
Consequently, Sternlieb was mainly concerned with designing the ideal living space: the flats had an area of up to 50 square metres, each with its own bathroom and toilet, which was not at all common at the time. The flats were intended for a family of four, with separate bedrooms for parents and children, and a living room. The majority of them included a ‘Frankfurt kitchen’, designed by architect Margarete Schütte-Linotzky in 1926 and considered the forerunner of the modern fitted kitchen.
When the general post office was built in Pirmasens in 1928, it was one of the most modern postal buildings of the time: it had a mechanised parcel handling system that shipped millions of parcels from the city, which was famous for the manufacture of shoes, all over the world. The Schuhkurier (shoe courier), the postal service’s own shunting locomotive, transported the parcel-laden carriages directly to the trains at the nearby train station.
Palatinate architect Heinrich Müller (1892–1968) would have never laid claim to having learnt his trade from a member of the Bauhaus. Rather, he studied under the tutelage of Theodor Fischer and German Bestelmeyer at the Technical University of Munich.
He worked for Munich’s Regional Postal Directorate from 1923 to 1924, before moving to Speyer’s Regional Postal Directorate as Chief Postal Building Officer. As head of the structural engineering department, he was responsible for the construction and conversion of all new postal buildings in the Palatinate. Hence, he was in the enviable position of being able to grant the building permits for his own projects. Heinrich Müller was appointed to teach building theory and design in the Faculty of Architecture at the Technical University of Karlsruhe—today the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)—in 1936.
Heinrich Müller is mistakenly considered one of Germany’s lesser known architects. He built several postal buildings in the Palatinate. However, he was somewhat reserved. Little is known about his professional character, motivation and convictions. The Pirmasens postal building is ample evidence that the architectural zeitgeist did not pass him by. Indeed, he consistently realised the New Objectivity in Pirmasens. Entirely in line with the Bauhaus idiom, the building’s functionality came first and foremost, and, above all, ‘utmost austerity’ was the post’s guiding principle.
Müller was occupied with the construction of three large municipal postal buildings from 1928 to 1932: the first was in Pirmasens, followed by the postal buildings in Neustadt an der Weinstraße and Kaiserslautern. All three are high-rise buildings with flat roofs, representing a shift for Müller, who had previously been a proponent of saddleback roofs.
As from 1 April 2019, one of Germany’s most modern youth hostels will be housed in the former general post office in Pirmasens.
Otto Bartning is considered Germany’s most eminent master church builder for Protestant churches and the founder of modern Protestant church construction. He built 150 churches in and outside Germany. Together with Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus, he was one of the leading minds that developed the Bauhaus idiom in 1918.
After the Bauhaus had relocated to Dessau, Bartning took over as director of the newly established Staatliche Bauhochschule (State University of Building) in Weimar from 1926 to 1930. However, after the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) won power in Thuringia, he had to relinquish his role and went to Berlin.
After the Second World War, Otto Bartning devised a programme for the construction of ‘Notkirchen’ (makeshift churches). In the first phase, 43 were built across Germany with the help of foreign support. The Lutheran church on Zitadellenweg 1 in Mainz is one such church, and the first church to be built in Mainz after the Second World War.
Bartning’s serial construction produced an impressive church, despite its modest design. Plenty of light and warm wood contributed to a feeling of security. The Lutheran church has always considered itself a gathering place for people in need.
On the occasion of the '100 Years of Bauhaus', the Gutenberg-Museum in Mainz, one of the oldest museums of printing in the world, is featuring the Bauhaus typography that revolutionised and continues to define graphic and communication design around the world to this very day.
Bauhaus professor László Moholy-Nagy and other members of the Bauhaus movement, including Herbert Bayer, Josef Albers and Joost Schmidt, developed this ‘new typography’ or ‘Elemental Typography’, which was used in applications as diverse as advertising, posters, journals, books and the corporate design of international brands. Thus, they defined the international style of modernism. The grotesque typefaces in particular became the epitome of modernism in the USA, defining the style for future generations.
In autumn 2019, the Gutenberg Museum in Mainz will give prominence to the work of the Bauhaus in the fields of printing, typography and poster art by means of an extensive special exhibition on typography and an accompanying publication.
The Bauhaus pavilion in the inner courtyard will herald the anniversary. Erected by Ettweil, a company in Villingen-Schwenningen, the geometrical form of the structure, an elongated block with a rounded end, is reminiscent of the Regina kiosk by Bauhaus associate professor Herbert Bayer. The display typography he developed for the Bauhaus influenced the Dessau period of the Bauhaus and was decisive in increasing the popularity of the school of design.
The Bauhaus pavilion serves as a meeting and experimental space for typographic design projects based on the Bauhaus idiom, which the museum is developing in collaboration with the Mainz University of Applied Sciences. The three-and-a-half- by nine-metre wooden loft with a large glass frontage is also suitable for film screenings, seminars, workshops and readings, and will continue to be used after the Bauhaus anniversary.